Historical Analysis of the Colloquial Quotative Marker Tte
The Japanese Discourse Particle Maa
Pragmatic Competence in a Foreign Language: Teaching and Learning of Speech Acts in Japanese
Is There a Syntactic Difference in Japanese Language between Adults and Children?
Processing of Relative Clauses by Japanese Native Speakers and L2
The Use of Japanese Sentence-Final Pragmatic Markers in Toronto Niseis’ Bilingual Conversation
An Analysis of Nearly Synonymous Expressions: the Case of Sekkaku vs. Wazawaza
Print ISSN: 1481-5168 Online ISSN: 1929-3135
A Metrical Analysis of Vowel Shortening in Recent Japanese Loanwords and Japanese Rhythm Instruction
Vowel shortening occurs in many moraic trochee languages. In Fijian, there is a phonological rule called trochaic Shortening that shortens long vowels in penultimate syllables when the final vowel is short. In recent Japanese loanwords, there is a phonological tendency for word-final long vowels to undergo shortening after a heavy syllable. These two vowel shortenings appear very different at a glance since in Fijian the long vowel in a stressed syllable shortens, whereas in Japanese the word-final long vowel in an unaccented syllable tends to become short. In this paper, I will explore basic principles of these different shortening phenomena under Metrical Phonology and argue that these phenomena can be accounted for in a principled way. Furthermore, I will attempt to demonstrate a practical application of the proposing principles for Japanese vowel shortening in recent loanwords in order to help Japanese language learners effectively acquire rhythmic patterns of Japanese.
Future Audio-Visual Material Development in Japanese Language Education: Suggestions from a Survey on Video Teaching at High School and University Levels in the United States
This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in an attempt to find out the needs for video materials in Japanese language teaching at high school and university levels. Instructors at both levels in the United States were asked to give frank opinions about and wishes for video materials and teaching. Their opinions and wishes mainly fall into three areas: 1) contents of video materials. 2) concerns about learners, and 3) concerns about the instructors themselves. The findings will hopefully provide suggestions for future audio-visual material development to accommodate learners whose backgrounds and interests are growing wider in range now than in the past.
Cognitive Coaching: The Role of Japanese Teacher in Computer Age
Since the 1990’s, Computer Assisted Language Learning has become an integral part of Japanese language education. However, there is no effective Japanese pedagogy about the role of Japanese language teacher in Computer age. This paper argues that the computer-based environments require more attention to customized instruction in Japanese Language education. The teacher’s role needs to shift from teaching contents and required study to assist to understand learners’ cognitive process of motivation, goal-setting that believed increase performance. The important futures of Cognitive Coaching are assist leaner to be a self-directed, self-confidence, and long term quality performance in Japanese language education. This paper primarily utilizes the cognitive approach and examines its effective applications of the role of teacher by utilizing the case study of the beginner’s Japanese classes at Seton Hall University.
On the co-occurrence of ka-type kakari musubi construction and the auxiliary of inference, mu
This paper concerns the ka-type kakari musubi construction (whose derived form in Modern Japanese is the interrogative ka) in Old Japanese in the Nara period. The co-occurrence of this construction with the suiryoo no jodooshi (inferential auxiliary), mu, or its corollary, rumu and kemu, have been noted widely in the literature. Using Manyoshu as data, this paper examines both co-occurrence and non-co-occurrence of mu with the ka-type kakari musabi construction. It explains co-occurrences in terms of their epistemic proximity, such as the uncertainty of the speaker. Cases of non-co-occurrence can be divided into three types based on whether the construction expresses: (1) the causal inference; (2) rhetorical interrogative; or (3) regret. It argues that the epistemic scale proposed in Akatsuka (1985) is useful to explain all these cases in a unifying manner. They represent different speaker attitudes, that is, “the speaker’s subjective evaluation of the ontological reality of a given situation” (Akatsuka, 1985: 635-36) in a continuum of the two conceptual domains, realis and irrealis.
Teaching the Demonstrative ANO: Lessons from an Analysis of ANO in a Work of Modern Japanese Literature
Yasuko ITO WATT
Demonstratives are often referred to as KO-SO-A in Japanese; they are used to refer to (1) actual objects such as things, places, and people or (2) intangible objects such as a part or all of a previous conversation or writing. A-words can also be used in referring to some memory or recollection of the speaker (Horiguchi 1978). One of the problematic grammar points encountered in teaching Japanese is the use of A-words to point to other than real objects. Students often express their frustration in learning this type of demonstrative. In this paper, I examine the use of ANO in the popular post-war novel The Setting Sun by Dazai Osamu. Dazai uses the demonstrative ANO frequently and with special effectiveness in this novel. Particular attention is given to ANO belonging to the second category noted above. On the basis of my analysis, I make suggestions concerning the teaching of ANO with the aim of helping students gain both passive and active knowledge of it.
This article analyzes the origin of the colloquial quotative marker tte with numerous philological data taken from literature written from 720 AD, the oldest written text, to the present. Although tte is a colloquial variant for the quotative panicle to, it has developed several new functions in Modern Japanese. Some argue that the origin of tte is tote, but they fail to explain how tote developed into tte. Some speculate that tte was derived from to (iu), but it is still unexplained what kind of phonological change has happened to to (iu) to become tte. In this article, I suggest an alternative hypothesis: te, an Old Japanese Eastern dialect for the quotative to, as the origin of the modern tte. The dialectal quotative te emerges again in Meiji literature along with an interchangeable variant, tte, after 1000 years of absence, when native Tokyo authors began to write in their spoken language. This movement, genbun icchi undou “the movement of unification of written and spoken language,” is thought to have brought the dialectal quotative marker te to the surface again with new grammaticalized usage.
日常会話の中で頻繁に使われる「まあ」には国語辞典には表記されていない用途もあり、日本語学習者にとっては耳慣れた言葉でも使いにくいものでるように思う。ここでは、「まあ」を英語の “oh” “well” “sort of”と比較しながら「まあ」の、話者だけが知り得る話者の世界と、聞き手を巻き込んだ話者と聞き手によって共用された世界とを結びつけるという役割を中心に、その性質を分析してみた。
In many bilingual communities, speakers conduct conversations using two languages as part of their daily routine (e.g. Auer 1998; Fleller 1988; Maschler 1994; Nishimura 1997). This paper examines the use of Japanese sentence-final particles and other Japanese sentence final forms in Toronto Niseis’ Japanese English bilingual conversations. In naturally occurring conversations tape recorded on two occasions in the Niseis’ private homes, the Niseis frequently marked English sentences with the following-Japanese sentence-final forms: 1) particles (ne, yo, and yo ne); 2) da-derived forms (desho, da, da ne, da mo, and da kara), and finally, 3) a quotative particle tte and constructions containing it (tte, datte, chuu, and tte wake). Based on the recent studies of pragmatic functions of various Japanese sentence-final forms (e.g. Kitagawa 1991; Maynard 1996; Nazikian 1994), this paper will illustrate what the Niseis accomplish through these forms in their bilingual conversations. Sentence-final particles in 1) are mostly used for interactional purposes, da-derived forms in 2) show degrees of certainty and carry effects such as confidence, and finally, tte and constructions containing it are used for marking quotations and for indicating the source of the information conveyed in the sentence. lt will be suggested that the Niseis use these forms because English lacks equivalent pragmatic markers. When the Niseis use these forms, they are practicing pragmatics characteristic of Japanese. This account will provide a clue to a more general question of why bilingual speakers use two languages at the same time, a phenomenon generally called code-switching in linguistics.
This study presents a linguistic analysis of two nearly synonymous Japanese adverbs: sekkaku and wazawaza. Sekkaku and wazawaza roughly share the semantics of “with effort”; and the similarity between the two words sometimes causes difficultly for learners of Japanese in their uses. Morita (1980) observed that wazawaza must involve intentional action, whereas sekkaku is free from the constraint. He also points out that the use of wazawaza toward self actions can be sometimes offensive because wazawaza contains the sense of one’s burden or trouble and using wazawaza in expressing one’s own act can be rude. As for sekkaku, Morita observed that it must involve both a situation action and its result. If the sentence only involves action, wazawaza must be used. Are these observations enough to account for the difference between the two expressions? ln this study, I will clarify the characterizations of sekkaku and wazawaza by examining in which cases only one form or the other can be used. I hope the sharper characterizations of these words make it easier for Japanese learners in their acquisition of these expressions.