Print ISSN: 1481-5168 Online ISSN: 1929-3135
Functions of the Final Particles “Ne” and “Yo”
Several publications regarding the final particles “ne” and “yo” have appeared recently. These publications have clarified many of the functions of these particles. The aim of my study is to continue this task. In my master’s thesis, “interpretation of Ellipted Subject by Grammatical Elements in the Japanese Sentence” 1990, I deal with the grammatical function of “ne”. My present study develops that part of my thesis further. I have been able to define many of the situations in which the presence of the particle “ne” is crucial. I have also made a comparison between the functions of “ne” and “yo”. The aim of this study is to demonstrate most cases in which the final particles “ne” and “yo” are essential, and to explain the presence of these particles when they are discretionary. In preparing my study, I have analyzed two texts, the transcript of a Japanese T.V. drama and an article from a book consisting of discussions between four native Japanese speakers. I have commented on and compared with my own findings, several recent articl3s regarding the final particles “ne” and “yo”.
A Study of Sensational Adjective and Person Restriction in Japanese
Teramura (1984) observes that sensation-adjectives, such as kowai “fearful”, kanashii “sad” take only the first person subject in declarative sentences. However, this restriction is not observed if the predicates are adjectival nouns, such as suki “like” and kirai “dislike”. This paper attempts to give a syntactic solution for the first person restriction in Japanese focusing on the relationship between a person feature and tense. This proposed analysis in turn support Chomsky (1992)’s hypothesis that the syntactic features are specified in Tense.
Soixante ans de la <Grammaire scolaire> – Autour de la notion de sujet grammatical-
The Use of the Particles Ga and Wa
Two separate experiments based on the Competition Model were conducted to investigate the processing of simple Japanese sentences, consisting of one verb and two nouns, by first year university students of Japanese. In Experiment 1, 11 native speakers of English and Chinese, respectively, served as the participants. They were requested to act out the following six types of sentences: N-gaN-waV, N-waN-gaV, N-gaNV, NN-gaV, N-waNV, NN-waV. It was predicted that the participants, who at the time had studied Japanese for only 10 weeks, would have not yet comprehended the function of the particles ga and wa, and would thus apply their respective native language processing strategies to these sentences. This predicate use of strategy although observed in teh native speakers of English, was not observed in the latter group. A possible explanation for this might be that these latter students were in fact employing the same foreign language sentence processing strategy which they used to acquire English as a second language. Experiment 1, which students from the initial cohort who continued their study of Japanese. It was found that these students had learned the appropriate use of wa, but not that of ga. This can probably be explained, in part, by the content of the teaching materials covered during this period.
How do Chinese-Speaking Students Learn Japanese Prosody? A study on the Relation between Learners’ Dialect and Japanese Prosodic Features
This study attempted to analyse how learners of Japanese as a second language learn Japanese-like prosody in their speech. Present paper had two purposes. One was to investigate how they speak their native language including dialect both in daily life and public education. A second purpose was to examine which prosodic features make their speech more Japanese-like. The results were as follows: (1) learners’ dialect worked for learning prosodic features of foreign languages; (2) Shang-Hai dialect had a typical F0 pattern that would be a useful element for learning Japanese prosodic feature.
The Effectiveness of Journal Writing for Learning Japanese in a University Setting
Numerous case studies have reported on the effectiveness of journal writing in various fields since the late 1960s. Journal writing has been used not only in the language arts subjects abut also in non-language fields in order to develop learners’ knowledge in respective subject ares. However, while there are many studies showing that journal writing is an excellent tool to improve students’ language acquisition, little has been reported on the use of journal in foreign language learning. This paper examines the effectiveness of journal writing in an introductory Japanese language course at Carleton University fro 1991 to 1993. Students were encouraged to try out to use the language they had learned in order to communicate with native speakers. Students were instructed that the focus on the journal writing was on its content and not on the accuracy of their language use. This paper provides evidence which indicates that journal writing is an effective took to develop language skills even at an early stage of foreign language learning.
Original Dialogue Project
The main subject of this paper is an experimental activity, Original Dialogue Project, which deals with creative dialogues by students. The project is group work in which students are required to make up their own dialogues based on what they have learned during the course work. Students were successful in making a variety of unique, personal and amusing dialogues; they also performed well in classroom. Since 1992, Japanese language students at Queen’s University have been taking part in this project at the end of each term. This paper describes the background and need of this project. It also includes several previously-existed problems. Then, in connection to a communicative syllabus, I discuss a procedure and an effective method of organizing the project, followed by an example of an evaluation system, outcomes and instructor’s observations. Later, the project is reviewed in order to clarify its validity as an integrated learning material. In addition, I observe that the project is supported by Experiential Learning Theory which is based on a humanistic approach in the second language learning.
A Study of Speaker’s Subjectivity Reflected in Causal Expressions
This paper attempts to shed light on how the speaker’s subjectivity is reflected in the choice of words expressing causal relationships (i.e., mono, kara, node). Based on the analysis of the core meaning (context-free meaning) of mono, this author argues that the speaker uses mono to objectify and justify the relationship between Sentence 1 (S1) and Sentence 2 (S2) even if it is subjective and emotional. By using mono, the speaker conveys inevitability, and a presumption of another’s kindness or implicit request for forgiveness. In contrast, if the speaker wants to simply describe the causal relationship between S1 and S2, however subjective the reason might be, s/he would usually use kara. But if s/he wants to indicate that the cause described in S1 for S2is objective and considered acceptable in his/her community, s/he would use node. Even if the speaker does not necessarily believe the reason to be objective and valid, if s/he wants to make it appear such, s/he would choose node. Thus, the choice of these three expressions seems to depend on : 1) the speaker’s perception of a particular causal relationship (e.g., common association, inevitability), including the speaker’s assumption of the interlocutor’s perception thereof; and 2) how the speaker “frames” the event to get the interlocutor’s assent and sympathy.