Going beyond “—i” and “—na” Japanese Adjective Forms with English-Speaking Learners
Rethinking “Power” and Solidarity” in Japanese Discourse: A Case of No, Tte and To yuu + Nominal Wa
Learning the Interface between Semantico-Pragmatics and Morpho-Syntax in L2: A Case Study
Print ISSN: 1481-5168 Online ISSN: 1929-3135
The Uchi and Soto Concept in Keigo Learning
The present paper attempts to reexamine the teaching of keigo in order to make it more approachable for learners. The author examines the issue from three aspects of difficulties that learners may experience: 1) psychological aspect, 2) cognitive aspect, and 3) misunderstanding due to differences in the cultural backgrounds. First, the paper argues that seeking a common ground found in the keigo system and the learners’ culture may mitigate the psychological barrier that learners may have toward keigo learning. Second, it proposes gradual introduction of the keigo system. Moreover, based on the examination of keigo research, it proposes the use of uchi/soto concept as a key in keigo learning. It is cognitively less demanding to learn something new when the overarching concept is already familiar to the learner. Since the uchi/soto concept is found often in the course of the study of Japanese and therefore is familiar to the learner, utilization of that concept in keigo teaching would make it easier for the learner to understand the keigo system. Thirdly, the paper touches upon a possible danger in emphasizing power and hierarchical relationships. Though these terms may be universal (Brown & Gilman, 1960), the understanding of these terms are different from one culture to another. For this reason as well, the use of the uchi/soto concept as a key concept may help keigo learning.
Report on the Use of Particles by a Chinese School Boy: the Result of 1 Year’ Longitudinal Study
This study analyzes the use of particles by a Chinese school boy studying at a public primary school in Nagoya. One-year’ longitudinal study was conducted to reveal the characteristics of this boy’s particle use. 20 hours’ taped materials were transcribed and made “vocabulary cards”. Cards concerning particles were selected and classified into 4 groups, KAKU-JYOSI, SYUU-JYOSI, SETUZOKU-JYOSI and FUKU-JYUSI. The using order of the particles, frequency of each particles, and errors were analyzed in comparison with another Chinese school girl’s case (Nishitani 1997) and M.L.A. studies (Ohkubo, Nagano, Noji). Findings are as follows: 1) Using order: SYUU-JYOSI, KAKU-JYOSI, FUKU-JYOSI, SETUZOKU-JYOSI M.L.A: SYUU-JYOSI, KAKU-JYOSI, SETUZOKU-JYOSI, FUKU-JYOSI, 2) SETUZOKU-JYOSI “kara, node, noni” did not appear in a year, 3) Almost all the errors were the use of KAKU-JYOSI, 4) The eoors of using KAKU-JYOSI “no” and “o” are common both in the case of M.L.A. and Chinese school children. Results suggest two important points for teaching Japanese at primary schools. 1) The use of particles are to be especially taught in the Japanese class. 2) Teachers must use particles correctly in his or her speech.
Sentence Production by Use of Moochottode with Form of Aspect
This paper investigates why bilingual children show difficulties in expressing past temporal situation in the use of moochottode. There are constraints in the use of moochottode in an event which is about to happen. In order to describe an event that occurs directly in front of both hearer and listener, it is possible to use the form of the present tense of the verbs without using the forms of aspect. However, when the past event is expressed with moochottode, either aspect from tokoro-da-tta or yoo-to-shitei-ta is obligatory. Unfortunately, some bilingual children produce errors and make pauses in their utterances, thereby dropping the form of aspect. I use Garret’s Hesitation Model (1982) to analyze errors to investigate sentence production. Lexical access to lexicon and sentence construction interactively with using pauses; however, more complicated processing is responsible for the errors.
Le sujet grammatical en japonais: Contribution possible à la linguistique générale
Dans KANAYA (1997b), nous avons défendu la position de MIKAMI (1960), nous basant sur nos critiques face aux deux points díappui de KUNO (1973) et SHIBATANI (1978): les expressions honorifiques et le soi-disant <<pronom réfléchi>> jibun. Nous avons, díune part, observé que ces deux <<preuves syntaxiques>> sont non-fondées et, d’autre part, critiqué la Grammaire Scolaire que sanctionne officiellement le Ministère dí Éducation depuis 1935 et qui prend pour acquis cette notion éminemment indo-européenne du sujet grammatical. Le présent article est un développement naturel des discussions de KANAYA (1997b). Afin d’étayer notre position sur la non-pertinence du sujet grammatical en japonais, nous proposons de quitter la sphère du japonais. Dans un premier temps, les situations syntaxiques des langues est-asiatiques, ainsi que celles de la construction ergative seront analysées. Dans un deuxième temps, nous examinerons la voix médio-passive des langues anciennes indo-européennes. Notre objectif est de contribuer au développement de la linguistique générale, démontrant que la notion du sujet grammatical níest quíun phénomène indo-européen récent, loin d’un fait linguistique <<universel>>.
This study undertook (1) to find out what adjective related mistakes and problems English-speaking learners of Japanese have in translating from English to Japanese and vice versa, (2) what translation strategies they use, (3) how texts, reference materials and dictionaries deal with Japanese adjective forms, and (4) what teachers should do about teaching these forms. The results show that, compared with “—i” and “—na” adjectives, very little instruction is given in using other forms of Japanese adjectives, resulting in a situation in which a dictionary is of little use for complex adjectives. Our claim is that the Japanese adjective forms are more strictly rule governed then we think they are, and, therefore, a solid grammatical understanding of them is essential not only for using these forms correctly but also for consulting a dictionary for translation purposes.
Since Brown and Gilman’s 1960 pioneering study, and the subsequent contribution of Brown and Levison (1987), the notion of power and solidarity has been fundamental to sociolinguistic theory. “Power” is generally characterized by non-reciprocal forms of address, asymmetrical relationships in which one party is subordinate to another. In contrast, “solidarity” is associated with reciprocal forms of address, symmetrical relationship characterized by social equity and similarity. As the notions of “power” and “solidarity” (or distance and closeness) appear to be opposing concepts, some researchers associate certain linguistic forms with a show of power intentions. However, this paper argues the danger of simply linking linguistic forms with such interactional intentions. This paper first briefly reviews research findings on the use of the discourse model marker no in the context of gender and dominance. It then analyzes tte and to yuu + nominal (wa) to show that the same linguistic material can express either solidarity or power depending on the linguistic and pragmatic context. By examining utterances which include both no and tte or toyuu + nominal wa, this paper attempts to shed light on the complexity of the interrelationship between these two concepts in human interactions.
Instruction in an oversea L2 classroom often lacks the quality and quantity of genuine, naturalistic communication which is one of the most serious needs of the students in such a classroom. This paper is a trial to answer a question of how effective interaction can be designed to fulfill naturalistic communication in Japanese as a Second Language at a university level. In order to extract optimal conditions for an ideal interactive activity connecting inside and outside classroom, some studies in the second language acquisition and classroom interaction are summarized and eight examples of interactive activities in JSL are observed. Then an interactive activities syllabus in JSL, and a model L2 syllabus for interactivities are proposed.
The Effect of Feedback on “Joshi” Errors in Composition
This study examines the effect of instructor feedback on “joshi” errors by learners of the Japanese language. Subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of the length of time spent learning the language. Both groups were first asked to write their original compositions about summer vacation, then revise their compositions all by themselves, and finally correct the errors underlined by the instructor. The results indicated that the instructor feedback substantially improved the subjects’ corrections of “josh” errors in both groups, regardless of the study length. An error analysis was conducted for the two groups based on their rates of corrections, and the results were interpreted following Slobin’s (1973) language learning principles.
Narration and Description: the Key to the Advanced-level Proficiency
The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines stipulate that Advanced-level speakers must be able to “satisfy the requirements of school and work situations” and “narrate and describe with paragraph-length connected discourse.” Unfortunately, few students who study Japanese outside Japan can achieve this fluency after completing a four-year, university-level program. This paper considers the insufficiencies of current curricula based on ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines and points out the needs for narration and description exercises during the early stage of language learning.
Expectancy Competence of Native Speakers and Learners in Listening Comprehension in Discourse
This study investigates the expectancy competence in discourse with native Japanese speakers and advanced level learners of Japanese. The result is following. Both of native speakers and learners’ expectancy in listening of discourse have two different stages. (1) They expect certain information to follow based on foregoing information. (2) They expect development of discourse. Further (2)-1 in the development part of context they expect the direction of context as a hint of ‘arrangement in paragraph’ and ‘connection between paragraph and paragraph.’ Furthermore, within the limits of this study, Chinese learners are poor at expectancy and comprehension in text which has the conclusion located in the end, but are good at them in text which has the conclusions located in the beginning and in the end. Korean learners are good at expectancy and comprehension in both texts.
Differentiating the usage of particles may be one of the most difficult aspects to acquire for Japanese as a foreign/second language (JFL/JSL) learners. Among the various usages of the particles, the particle ga (used in identificational sentences) seems to present special difficulties for JFL learners. Instructional effects of negative feedback were analyzed in a case study of single participant to determine whether the intervention was effective in helping the JFL participant to learn this difficult aspect of JFL. Provision of negative feedback was given to the participant using an instructional software running on a Macintosh computer. Experimental sessions consisted of three sessions: There was a two-day interval between the first and the second; a two-week interval between the second and third. The intervention was made only in the first half of the Session 1. The effects were found to vary according to the type of NP in the sentence-initial position possibly due to the influence of English, her first language.
As terms such as ‘globalization’ or ‘internationalization’ are becoming key words in technological colleges, the demand for business Japanese, or technical and scientific Japanese is rapidly increasing. We started a six-week long intensive summer program three years ago called “Language for Business and Technology (LBAT).” The program targets intermediate-level students of Japanese. It consists of three components, (1) Business Japanese, (2) Technical & Scientific Japanese, and (3) Japan Today. Business Japanese aims to improve students’ reading skills in technology-oriented documents. Japan Today component aims to increase their awareness and understanding of Japanese society, corporate culture, and business protocol. This article introduces each component and discusses the learning effects of the program.
The diversity of Learners’ Intelligences and the Acquisition of Japanese as a Foreign Language
In the acquisitions of Japanese as a foreign language, learners show individual differences. No matter what national/cultural background they have, or what first/second languages they speak, they show different strengths and needs in learning. This research focuses on Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences which examines the individual differences of students in terms of strengths and abilities. The research explores the use of the theory in three classes of Japanese as a foreign language. The purpose of the research is to seek a better approach to the difficulties that student encounter. Data for this research was collected through questionnaires, observations, and interviews in Japanese introductory classes at the University of New Brunswick. In the process of collecting data, the students participated by learning their strengths and needs, and finding strategies to meet their needs. The teacher sought different approaches and activities for the students to use their strengths. Explorations and findings of the date show different aspects of validity of the methodology. The research shows the importance of students learning their preferred approaches and activities utilizing these approaches to reinforce their needs.